Although significant progress has been made in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei, the experimental knowledge of them is still very limited while the alpha decay chain is the main tool used to identify newly produced superheavy nuclei. Previously, we have extracted nuclear charge radii of superheavy nuclei via the experimental alpha decay data. As a further step, the density dependent cluster model is improved by introducing the difference between the density distributions of protons and neutrons. Besides, the important quantity, i.e., the alpha preformation factor, is connected with the microscopic correction of nuclear mass during this procedure, to perform a more reasonable description of the alpha decay process. It is found that the present deduced nuclear charge radii of heavy nuclei are in a better agreement with the measured values as compared to those in our previous evaluations. Subsequently, the nuclear radii of heavier even–even isotopes with Z = 98–116 are probed, accompanied by the consistency with the empirical evaluations. Moreover, the effect of the depressed density at the center of superheavy nucleus on the final extracted nuclear radius plus the decay lifetime is discussed, which appears to be different from the case of lighter nuclide.